Geocities sexual web sites
Generally referred to as Lolita sites, in reference to the book of the same name by author Vladimir Nobakov, child pornography sites have been appearing everywhere from private hosting domains to member communities such as Geo Cities. Robert Grove and Blaise Zerega, The Lolita Problem, The Red Herring, Jan. Additionally, revenues, for this illegal industry are estimated to range from 0 million to over billion each year. Any effort to combat Lolita sites encounters three main obstacles: (1) jurisdictional ambiguity; (2) ineffective means of legal enforcement; and (3) identifying guilty parties. Therefore, in the international context, the approach to solving jurisdictional questions is no longer Ameri-centric. Conversely, French courts have only imposed jurisdiction in cases where the act constituting a violation of French law was directed towards the French population. Yahoo et Yahoo France, [Interim Court Order of Nov. While child pornography is generally illegal throughout the world, enforcement from a US standpoint encounters two problems: (1) determining whether the content in question is indeed illegal and (2) ineffective methods of uncovering Lolita sites. Many merchant banks and credit card companies have policies of stopping payments once they know they are being used illicitly.
These obstacles will be addressed briefly in order. In this early stage of developing internet law, many courts have already taken differing approaches to answering the question of jurisdiction. Like any many other parties inadvertently tied to Lolita sites, however, they lack the resources to actively seek out illicit transactions.
Eventually, states should begin to settle on an international standard that will address questions of jurisdiction over the internet. Credit card processors act as the conduit for the transactions from the subscriber to the merchant bank.
Despite the ambiguity under the 1st Amendment, the Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996 amended the definition of child pornography under 18 U. Subscriptions and multimedia purchases drive the growth of Lolita sites; and just like any other online transaction, these subscriptions and purchases are made with the use of credit cards.
Therefore, anytime a website's content is questionable, the webmasters have tried to hide behind the 1st Amendment's protections by claiming either that the individuals photographed or otherwise recorded are in fact adults, or that the material is itself art. 2256 to include not only the depiction of sexual conduct by real minors but also the depiction of sexual conduct by what appears to be minors. One party that may be able to identify Lolita webmasters are the online credit card processors.
If lawmakers force web hosting companies and online member communities to screen for content, they will risk chilling the growth of businesses in this area.
Furthermore, because its service is completely automated, Lolita webmasters are free to display illicit materials without interference.